Articulating a clear and concise research question is fundamental to conducting a robust and useful research study. Although “getting stuck into” the data collection is the exciting part of the research, this preparation stage is crucial. Clear and concise research questions are needed for a number of reasons. Initially, they are needed to enable you to search the literature effectively. They will allow you to write clear aims and generate hypotheses. They will also ensure that you can select the most appropriate research design for your study.

This paper begins by describing the process of articulating clear and concise research questions, assuming that you have minimal experience. It then describes how to choose research questions that should be answered and how to generate study aims and hypotheses from your questions. Finally, it describes briefly how your question will help you to decide on the research design and methods best suited to answering it.

A research question has been described as “the uncertainty that the investigator wants to resolve by performing her study” or “a logical statement that progresses from what is known or believed to be true to that which is unknown and requires validation”. Developing your question usually starts with having some general ideas about the areas within which you want to do your research. These might flow from your clinical work, for example. You might be interested in finding ways to improve the pharmaceutical care of patients on your wards.

Alternatively, you might be interested in identifying the best antihypertensive agent for a particular subgroup of patients. Lipowski2 described in detail how working as a practicing pharmacist can be used to great advantage to generate interesting research questions and hence useful research studies. Ideas could come from questioning received wisdom within your clinical area or the rationale behind quick fixes or workarounds, or from wanting to improve the quality, safety, or efficiency of working practice


Findings are basically the key outcome of the investigation. It is basically a key fact that you can discover during an investigation. Research findings are facts and phrases, observations, and experimental data resulting from research.

It’s important to note here that “finding” does not always mean “factual information” because conductive research relies on results and implications rather than measurable facts.

For example, A researcher is conducting research for measuring the extent to which globalization impacts the business activities of firms. The findings of the research reveal that there has been a great increase in the profitability of companies after globalization. An important fact that research has discovered is that it is globalization has enabled firms to expand their business operations at the international level.

Objectives of finding section in the research paper
  • The main objective of the finding section in a research paper is to display or showcase the outcome in a logical manner by utilizing, tables, graphs, and charts.
  • The objective of the research findings is to provide a holistic view of the latest research findings in related areas.
  • Research findings also aim at providing novel concepts and innovative findings that can be utilized for further research, development of new products or services, implementation of better business strategies, etc.

For example, an academic paper on “the use of product life cycle theory with reference to various product categories” will not only discuss different dimensions of the product life cycle but would also present a detailed case study analysis on how the concept was applied using several contemporary case studies from diverse industries.

How to Write Research Findings?
Review the guidelines or instructions of the instructor

It is an initial step, where you should review the guidelines.  By reading the guidelines you will be able to address the different requirements for presenting the results. While reviewing the guidelines you should also keep in mind the restrictions related to the interpretations. In the reseal findings sections, you can also make a comparison between your research results with the outcome of the investigation that other researchers have performed.

Focus on the results of the experiment and other findings

At this step, you should choose specific focus experimental results and other research discoveries which are relevant to research questions and objectives. You utilizing subheadings can avoid excessive and peripheral details.  Students can present raw data in the appendices of a research paper. You should provide a summary of key findings after completion of the section. Before making the decision related to the structure of the findings section, you need to consider the hypothesis in the research and research questionsYou should match the format of the findings chapter with that of the research methods sections.

Design effective visual presentations

Designing effective visual presentations of research results will help you in improving textual reports of findings. Students can use tables of different styles and unique figures such as maps, graphs, and photos which are mainly used by researchers for presenting research findings. But it is very much essential for you to review the journal guidelines. As these are the tactics that will help you in analyzing the requirement of labeling and specific type of formatting. You should number tables, and figures, and place them in the manuscript. You should provide a clear and detailed explanation of the data in tables and charts.  Tables and figures should also be self-explanatory.

Write findings section

You should write the findings sections in a factual and objective manner. While writing the research findings section you should keep in mind its aim. The main aim of the specific section is to communicate information. While writing a findings chapter, it is very much important for you to construct sentences by using a simple structure. You should use an active voice for writing research-finding chapters.  It is very much crucial for you to maintain your concentration on grammar, punctuation, and spelling.

Review draft of findings section

After writing the findings, you should revise and review them. It is the review technique that will enable you to check the accuracy and consistency of information. You can read the content aloud. It s the strategy which will help you in addressing the mistakes.  Ensure that the order in which you have presented results is the best order for focusing readers on your research objectives and preparing them for the interpretations, and speculations. Students can also provide recommendations in the discussion chapter. In order to provide good suggestions need to review back such as the introduction, and background material.


Behavior change to address climate change


Addressing climate change requires profound behavior change, not only in consumer action, but also in action as members of communities and organizations, and as citizens who can influence policies. However, while many behavioral models exist to explain and predict mitigation and adaptation behaviors, we argue that their utility in establishing meaningful change is limited due to their being too reductive, individualistic, linear, deliberative, and blind to environmental impact. This has led to a focus on suboptimal intervention strategies, particularly informational approaches. Addressing the climate crisis requires a focus on high-impact behaviors and high-emitting groups; interdisciplinary interventions that address the multiple drivers, barriers, and contexts of behavior; and timing to ensure interventions are targeted to moments of change when habits are weaker.


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