Bottom Topography of Indian Ocean , The Indian Ocean is the third largest ocean in the world, covering an area of about 70,560,000 square kilometres. It is bounded by Asia to the north, Africa to the west, Australia to the east, and the Southern Ocean to the south.
The Indian Ocean is connected to the Atlantic Ocean through the Southern Ocean around Antarctica, and to the Pacific Ocean through the seas around Southeast Asia. It is the only ocean that is named after a country – India – and it has been an important trade route and cultural crossroads for thousands of years.
The Indian Ocean is known for its warm waters, rich marine biodiversity, and unique geological features, such as the mid-ocean ridge, seamounts, and oceanic trenches. It is home to a wide variety of marine life, including whales, dolphins, sharks, rays, turtles, and a vast array of fish and invertebrates.
Here are some of the major features Bottom Topography of Indian Ocean:
The Indian Ocean Basin:
The Indian Ocean Basin is the deepest part of the Indian Ocean, located in the south-eastern part of the ocean. It is a large, elongated basin that stretches from the southern tip of India to the Australian Antarctic Territory. The basin has a maximum depth of about 7,450 meters and an average depth of around 3,900 meters.
The Indian Ocean Basin was formed as a result of tectonic plate movements that began around 135 million years ago, during the break-up of the supercontinent Gondwana. The basin is bounded by the Indian Ridge to the east, the Broken Ridge and Kerguelen Plateau to the south, and the Ninety East Ridge to the west.
The Indian Ocean Basin is home to a diverse range of marine life, including deep-sea fish, squid, and crustaceans. Some of the unique features of the basin include deep-sea hydrothermal vents, which support communities of chemosynthetic organisms, and large areas of abyssal plain, which are some of the flattest and least explored regions of the ocean.
The Mid-Indian Ridge:
There are numerous minor and major ridges found in the bottom topography of Indian ocean. The Mid-Indian Ridge is a vast underwater mountain range that runs down the Centre of the Indian Ocean from north to south. It is the longest continuous submarine mountain range in the world, stretching over 5,000 kilometers from the Carlsberg Ridge in the north to the Southwest Indian Ridge in the south.
The Mid-Indian Ridge is a divergent plate boundary, where the African Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate are moving away from each other, causing magma from the Earth’s mantle to rise and form new oceanic crust. The ridge is characterized by a series of parallel, linear volcanic peaks, or seamounts, which are separated by deep rift valleys.
The ridge has a complex geology, with different segments displaying different characteristics. In the northern part of the ridge, the seafloor is covered by a layer of sediment, while in the southern part, the ridge is more rugged, with steeper slopes and deeper valleys.
The Mid-Indian Ridge is an important region for scientific research, as it provides insight into the tectonic processes that drive the movement of the Earth’s crustal plates, the formation of oceanic crust, and the evolution of the oceanic lithosphere. It is also an important habitat for a variety of deep-sea organisms, including tube worms, crabs, and shrimp.
The Mascarene Plateau:
The Mascarene Plateau is a large submarine volcanic plateau located in the southwestern Indian Ocean, to the east of Madagascar. It covers an area of about 115,000 square kilometers and rises to a depth of about 2,000 meters.
The plateau was formed by a series of volcanic eruptions that occurred between 30 and 10 million years ago, as the African Plate moved over a hotspot in the Earth’s mantle. The eruptions built up a series of volcanic islands, which later subsided and became submerged.
Today, the Mascarene Plateau is a mostly flat, featureless region of the ocean floor, characterized by gently sloping plains and occasional volcanic peaks. It is home to a rich diversity of marine life, including corals, sponges, and a variety of fish and invertebrates.
The Mascarene Plateau is also of great interest to scientists because of its unique geological history and the insights it can provide into the processes that drive the movement of the Earth’s crustal plates and the formation of oceanic crust. It is also an important area for studying the effects of climate change on the ocean, as changes in sea level and ocean currents can have a significant impact on the marine ecosystems that thrive on and around the plateau.
The Ninety East Ridge:
The Ninety East Ridge is a vast underwater volcanic mountain chain that runs parallel to the east coast of India in the Indian Ocean. It is one of the longest continuous volcanic ridges in the world, stretching for over 5,800 kilometers from the Bay of Bengal to the southern Indian Ocean.
The Ninety East Ridge was formed as a result of volcanic activity that occurred around 80 to 37 million years ago, during the time when India was separating from Madagascar and drifting northward towards Asia. The ridge is thought to have formed as a result of magma rising from the Earth’s mantle and solidifying into basaltic rock. The Ninety East Ridge is characterized by a series of linear volcanic peaks or seamounts, which rise from a depth of around 4,000 meters to just a few hundred meters below the ocean surface. The ridge has a complex geology, with different segments displaying different characteristics, including differing ages and shapes of the seamounts.
The Ninety East Ridge is an important region for scientific research, as it provides insights into the geological history of the Indian Ocean and the tectonic processes that drive the movement of the Earth’s crustal plates. It is also home to a diverse range of deep-sea organisms, including corals, sponges, and a variety of fish and invertebrates. The ridge has been the site of several scientific expeditions and continues to be an important area for ongoing research.
The Java Trench:
The Java Trench, also known as the Sundra Trench, is a deep oceanic trench located in the eastern Indian Ocean, just south of the island of Java, Indonesia. It is the deepest trench in the Indian Ocean, with a maximum depth of over 7,400 meters. Bottom topography of Indian ocean is area of vast studies
The Java Trench is formed by the subduction of the Australian Plate beneath the Sundra Plate, which is a part of the larger Eurasian Plate. The collision of these two tectonic plates has created a deep and narrow trench, which extends for over 3,300 kilometers along the boundary between the two plates.
The Java Trench is characterized by steep walls and a narrow floor, which is covered with sediment and various types of marine life. The trench is also home to a variety of unique and diverse deep-sea organisms, including several species of fish, squid, and other invertebrates.
The Laccadive Ridge:
The Laccadive Ridge is a submerged volcanic mountain range located in the eastern Arabian Sea, off the southwestern coast of India. This is a submarine ridge located between India and the Maldives.
It stretches for about 1,000 kilometres in a north-south direction, from the southern tip of India to the northernmost part of the Maldives.
The Laccadive Ridge was formed by volcanic activity that occurred around 60 to 45 million years ago, as the Indian Plate moved northward and collided with the Eurasian Plate. The volcanic activity resulted in the formation of a series of undersea volcanoes and lava flows, which built up the ridge.
Today, the Laccadive Ridge is a mostly submerged feature of the ocean floor, rising to a depth of around 3,000 meters. It is characterized by a series of linear volcanic peaks or seamounts, which are separated by deep valleys.
The Chagos-Laccadive Plateau:
The Chagos-Laccadive Plateau is a large underwater plateau located in the central Indian Ocean, between the Chagos Archipelago and the Laccadive Islands. The plateau covers an area of about 170,000 square kilometres and rises to a depth of around 2,000 meters.
The Chagos-Laccadive Plateau was formed by a series of volcanic eruptions that occurred between 60 and 30 million years ago, as the Indian Plate moved northward and collided with the Eurasian Plate. The eruptions built up a series of volcanic islands, which later subsided and became submerged, forming the plateau.
Today, the Chagos-Laccadive Plateau is a mostly flat, featureless region of the ocean floor, characterized by gently sloping plains and occasional volcanic peaks. It is home to a rich diversity of marine life, including corals, sponges, and a variety of fish and invertebrates.
These are just a few examples of the many features that make up the bottom topography of the Indian Ocean.