Tourism can have both positive and negative impacts on the economy of a destination. Positive impacts include the creation of jobs, the generation of foreign currency through the spending of tourists, and the stimulation of local businesses such as hotels, restaurants, and souvenir shops. However, negative impacts can include overcrowding, strain on local resources, and inflation of prices due to increased demand. Additionally, the benefits of tourism are not always evenly distributed, with some communities experiencing greater benefits than others. In order to maximize the positive and minimize the negative impacts, it is important for destinations to manage their tourism industry sustainably.
Development of Basic Need
The development of basic needs refers to the improvement of essential services and facilities necessary for a minimum standard of living. These basic needs include access to:
- Clean water and sanitation: Access to clean water and proper sanitation facilities is essential for good health and hygiene.
- Food: Adequate food supplies and nutrition are necessary for survival and overall health.
- Shelter: A safe and secure place to live is a basic human need.
- Healthcare: Access to basic healthcare services is important for maintaining good health and preventing diseases.
- Education: Education is crucial for personal development and social mobility, and helps to break the cycle of poverty.
- Electricity: Access to electricity is important for lighting, heating, and powering essential household appliances and services.
- Transport: Reliable and affordable transportation is necessary for accessing goods and services, education, and healthcare.
Meeting these basic needs is a key factor in promoting human development and reducing poverty. The development of basic needs is typically the responsibility of the government and international aid organizations, and requires investment in infrastructure, institutions, and services. Improving basic needs can have a positive impact on individuals and communities, and is considered a crucial step towards sustainable economic growth and development.
Economic Impact of Tourism
Tourism is a significant contributor to many countries’ economies, with billions of dollars in revenue generated by the industry every year.
The tourism industry generates substantial economic benefits to both host countries and tourists’ home countries. Especially in developing countries, one of the primary motivations for a region to promote itself as a tourism destination is the expected economic improvement.
As with other impacts, this massive economic development brings along both positive and negative consequences.
Positive Economic Impact of Tourism
The positive economic impacts of tourism can include:
Job creation: The tourism industry can create new job opportunities in areas such as accommodation, food and beverage services, transportation, and recreation.
Revenue generation: Tourist spending on goods and services in a destination can generate significant revenue for local communities and businesses, which can support the local economy and contribute to its development.
Foreign exchange earnings: The influx of tourists from foreign countries can result in foreign exchange earnings for a destination, which can help to boost its economy and improve its balance of payments.
Infrastructure development: Investment in infrastructure, such as transportation systems, communication networks, and energy systems, can help to improve access to and the quality of services and amenities, and can support the growth of the tourism industry.
Stimulation of other industries: The growth of the tourism industry can stimulate the development of other industries, such as agriculture, retail, and manufacturing, which can create new job opportunities and contribute to the overall economic development of the destination.
Cultural exchange: The interaction between tourists and local residents can result in cultural exchange, which can increase understanding and appreciation of different cultures and traditions, and contribute to international peace and cooperation.
Improved quality of life: The revenue generated by the tourism industry can support the development of local communities and the improvement of public services, such as education, healthcare, and social services, leading to an improved quality of life for local residents.
To maximize the positive economic impacts of tourism and minimize the negative impacts, it is important to manage the sector sustainably, ensuring that it is accessible, affordable, and respectful of local communities and the environment. This can be achieved through effective planning, responsible development, and the implementation of sustainable management practices, such as the use of renewable energy, water conservation, and waste management.
Negative Economic Impact of Tourism
Diversification in an economy is a sign of health, however if a country or region becomes dependent for its economic survival upon one industry, it can put major stress upon this industry as well as the people involved to perform well.
Many countries, especially developing countries with little ability to explore other resources, have embraced tourism as a way to boost the economy.
In The Gambia, for instance, 30% of the workforce depends directly or indirectly on tourism. In small island developing states, percentages can range from 83% in the Maldives to 21% in the Seychelles and 34% in Jamaica
Over-reliance on tourism carries risks to tourism-dependent economies. Economic recession, the impacts of natural disasters such as tropical storms and changing tourism patterns can all have a devastating effect.
The negative economic impacts of tourism can include:
Overcrowding: Mass tourism can lead to overcrowding at popular tourist destinations, reducing the quality of the visitor experience and damaging the natural and cultural heritage of the destination.
Price inflation: The high demand for goods and services in tourist destinations can lead to price inflation, making it more expensive for both tourists and local residents.
Dependence on the tourism industry: Over-dependence on the tourism industry can make a destination vulnerable to economic shocks and fluctuations, such as changes in travel patterns, economic downturns, and natural disasters.
Competition for resources: The growth of the tourism industry can lead to competition for limited resources such as land, water, and energy, which can impact local communities and the environment.
Seasonal employment: The tourism industry often operates on a seasonal basis, which can lead to limited job opportunities and high levels of unemployment outside of the peak tourist season.
Loss of local culture: The influx of tourists can lead to the erosion of local cultures, traditions, and customs, as well as the displacement of local communities.
Environmental degradation: Mass tourism can result in environmental degradation, such as pollution, deforestation, and soil erosion, which can have long-term impacts on the health and quality of the environment.
To minimize these negative impacts, it is important for destinations to implement sustainable tourism management practices, such as the development of alternative sources of income, the protection of local cultures and the environment, and the promotion of responsible tourism practices. Additionally, tourism authorities should work with local communities and businesses to develop tourism strategies that benefit everyone, and to ensure that the benefits of tourism are shared equitably.
Tourist Doing Expenditure on Basic Need
Tourists can have an impact on the development of basic needs in a destination by spending money on these needs. When tourists purchase goods and services related to basic needs, such as food, water, and transportation, they are providing a source of revenue for local businesses and supporting the local economy. This, in turn, can help improve the provision of these basic needs, as the increased demand can lead to increased investment in infrastructure and services.
However, the impact of tourist spending on basic needs can be complex, as it can also lead to inflation and price increases, making these goods and services less affordable for local residents. Additionally, tourists may also place a strain on local resources, such as water and waste management, leading to degradation of the environment and reduced quality of life for local residents.
Tourists can impact the development of basic needs through their expenditure on the following:
Attractions: When tourists visit attractions such as museums, parks, and historical sites, they generate revenue for these institutions, which can help improve the quality of these attractions and make them more accessible to visitors.
Transportation: Tourist spending on transportation, such as taxis, buses, and trains, supports the local transportation industry, which can lead to improved infrastructure and services.
Accommodation: Spending on accommodation, such as hotels and resorts, supports the local hospitality industry and can lead to increased investment in the sector, which can help improve the quality of accommodation and make it more affordable for tourists.
Supporting facilities: Spending on supporting facilities, such as restaurants, shops, and entertainment venues, supports the local retail and service industry, which can help to improve these facilities and make them more accessible to tourists.
Infrastructure: Infrastructure such as roads, bridges, and airports play a critical role in facilitating tourist travel and supporting the local tourism industry. When tourists spend money on transportation and accommodation, they are indirectly contributing to the development of local infrastructure, which can help to improve the overall quality of the destination.
In conclusion, tourist spending on basic needs can have both positive and negative impacts on a destination, and it is important to manage the tourism industry sustainably to ensure that the benefits are distributed equitably.