Temperate Grasslands Biome

Distribution of Biomes

Temperate Grasslands Biome are a type of terrestrial biome characterized by vast expanses of grasses and few trees. They are found in areas with temperate climates, usually in the interiors of continents, and can be found on every continent except Antarctica. The two main types of temperate grasslands are the prairies of North America and the steppes of Eurasia.

Temperate Grasslands Biome

Temperate Grasslands Biome

Temperate grasslands are located in the interiors of the continents which come in the westerly wind belt but because of their more interior locations they do not get sufficient rainfall and hence the grasslands are practically treeless.

The temperate grasslands of Eurasia, known as STEPPES, are most extensive as they extend for a distance of more than 3200 km from the shores of the Black Sea across the Great Russian Plain to the foothills of the Altai Mountains. Their continuity is broken at few places by the highlands. There are also some isolated patches of steppes e.g. in Hungary (known as PUSTAZ) and on the plains of Manchuria (Manchurian Grassland).

The temperate grasslands of North America (extending in the U.S.A. and Canada both) are locally known as PRAIRIES, which extend from the foothills of the Rockies in the west to the temperate deciduous forest biome in the east.

The temperate grasslands of the southern hemisphere include ‘the PAMPAS of Argentina and Uruguay of South America; BUSH VELD and the HIGH VELD of south Africa; and DOWNS of the Murray – Darling basins of Southeastern Australia and CANTERBURY GRASSLAND of New Zealand.


The climate of temperate grasslands is characterized by moderate temperatures, with warm summers and cold winters. The average annual precipitation is moderate, typically between 30 and 60 centimeters (12-24 inches), and mostly occurs during the summer months. The winter months can be very dry, and snowfall is common. Temperatures can range from -40°C to 40°C (-40°F to 104°F), with daily temperature fluctuations of up to 20°C (36°F) in some regions.

Temperate grasslands are found in regions with a continental climate, which means that they are located in the interior of continents, far away from any moderating influence from oceans. This results in a climate with large temperature fluctuations between day and night, as well as between seasons. The lack of trees in temperate grasslands makes them susceptible to wildfires, which are often started by lightning strikes or human activities.

The moderate climate of temperate grasslands allows for the growth of grasses for most of the year, which provides food for grazing animals such as bison, antelope, and deer. The deep root systems of the grasses help them survive droughts and wildfires. The climate also supports the growth of wildflowers such as goldenrods, asters, and coneflowers, which provide food for insects and birds. Overall, the climate of temperate grasslands plays a critical role in supporting the unique vegetation and wildlife that are found in these biomes.

Northern hemisphere – extremes of summer and winter temperatures are well marked but the temperate grasslands of the southern hemisphere are characterized by more moderate climate. Summers are warm with over 20°C temperature during July (Winnipeg, Canada) and 22°C during January (Pretoria, South Africa, January is summer month in the southern hemisphere). Winter season becomes very cold in the northern hemisphere because of enormous distances of the temperate grasslands from the nearest sea.

The mean annual precipitation ranges between 250mm to 500mm in different locations of the temperate grasslands. The winter precipitation in the northern hemisphere is usually received in the form of snowfall and most parts of the Eurasian Steppe are snow covered for several months during northern winters. Most of the annual rainfall is received during summer season.

Here is a table summarizing the climate of temperate grasslands:

Climate CharacteristicsTemperate Grasslands
TemperatureModerate, with warm summers and cold winters
Average Annual Precipitation30-60 cm (12-24 inches)
Precipitation DistributionMostly during summer months, with dry winters
Temperature Range-40°C to 40°C (-40°F to 104°F)
Daily Temperature FluctuationsUp to 20°C (36°F)
Climate TypeContinental
Wildfire SusceptibilityHigh
VegetationGrasses, wildflowers
WildlifeGrazing animals such as bison, antelope, and deer, as well as birds and insects


The average annual rainfall in temperate grasslands ranges from 30-60 centimeters (12-24 inches) per year, with most of the precipitation occurring during the summer months. This distribution of rainfall is known as a “summer-dry” climate, which means that the grasslands experience hot, dry summers and cold, relatively dry winters.

The amount of rainfall in temperate grasslands can vary widely from year to year, which can have a significant impact on the vegetation and wildlife that depend on it. In years with low rainfall, the grasses may dry out and die, which can make it difficult for grazing animals to find food. In addition, wildfires can be more common during dry periods, which can damage or destroy large areas of grassland.

Despite the relatively low levels of rainfall, temperate grasslands are still able to support a diverse range of plant and animal life. The deep root systems of the grasses help to retain moisture in the soil, and the grasses themselves are adapted to survive droughts and wildfires. In addition, the summer rainfall provides a critical source of moisture for the growth and reproduction of many plant species.

Overall, the rainfall in temperate grasslands is an important factor in shaping the unique ecosystem of these biomes.

Here is a table summarizing the rainfall characteristics of temperate grasslands:

Rainfall CharacteristicsTemperate Grasslands
Average Annual Rainfall30-60 cm (12-24 inches)
Rainfall DistributionMostly during summer months
Climate TypeSummer-dry
Impact on VegetationCritical for growth and reproduction of plant species
Impact on WildlifeCan affect food availability for grazing animals
Drought AdaptationsDeep root systems and adaptations to survive droughts
Wildfire SusceptibilityCan increase during dry periods

I hope this table helps you understand the rainfall patterns in temperate grasslands!


The soil in temperate grasslands is typically very fertile and nutrient-rich, which is one reason why these biomes are so well-suited for agriculture. The soil is formed from the accumulation of organic matter from the decomposition of grasses and other vegetation, as well as from the activities of burrowing animals such as prairie dogs and gophers.

The soil in temperate grasslands is also well-drained and has a high capacity for holding water, which helps to support the growth of the grasses and other plants that are found in these biomes. The deep root systems of the grasses help to retain moisture in the soil, which allows them to survive droughts and wildfires.

In addition to their agricultural value, the soils in temperate grasslands also play an important role in carbon sequestration. The organic matter in the soil helps to trap carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which can help to mitigate the effects of climate change.

Overall, the soil in temperate grasslands is a critical component of the unique ecosystem of these biomes, and its fertility and nutrient content are essential for supporting the rich plant and animal life that are found there.

Here is a table summarizing the soil characteristics of temperate grasslands:

Soil CharacteristicsTemperate Grasslands
FertilityVery fertile and nutrient-rich
Soil FormationAccumulation of organic matter from decomposing vegetation and burrowing animals
Water-Holding CapacityHigh
Role in Carbon SequestrationTraps carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
Agricultural ValueWell-suited for agriculture
Importance for EcosystemCritical for supporting plant and animal life

I hope this table helps you understand the important role that soil plays in the temperate grasslands biome!


The vegetation in temperate grasslands is dominated by a variety of grass species, which can range in height from just a few centimeters to over two meters. Some common grasses found in these biomes include buffalo grass, blue grama, and wheatgrass. Wildflowers such as goldenrods and asters are also common in temperate grasslands.

The grasses in temperate grasslands have adapted to survive the hot, dry summers and cold winters by developing deep root systems that can reach several meters below the surface. These roots allow the grasses to access moisture and nutrients that are stored deep in the soil, which helps them to survive extended periods of drought.

In addition to grasses and wildflowers, temperate grasslands may also support scattered trees and shrubs, particularly along streams and other water sources. Common trees found in these biomes include cottonwoods, willows, and oaks.

The vegetation in temperate grasslands is adapted to periodic disturbances such as wildfires and grazing by large herbivores such as bison and pronghorns. In fact, these disturbances are necessary to maintain the diversity of plant and animal life in these biomes.

Overall, the vegetation in temperate grasslands is well-adapted to the unique climate and soil conditions of these biomes, and it plays a critical role in supporting the rich ecosystem that is found there.

Temperate Grasslands Biome Vegetation
Temperate Grasslands Biome Vegetation

Grasses perennial grasses- belonging to the family of GRAMINEAE – The temperate grassland biome is unique in the sense that it has single layered structure of vegetation community where the upper canopy of the grasses is formed by their leaves but for a short period the flowering stalks also join the canopy and add grandeur to the top-layer. The flowers do not have petals. The pollination of flowers and the dispersal of seeds are facilitated by wind.

EURASIAN STEPPES. The steppe biome has the largest areal extent in the Soviet Union wherein it extends from eastern Europe to western Siberia and between temperate coniferous forest in the north and arid regions in the south west. The Soviet Steppes are divided into two sub-types on the basis of vegetation e.g. i) FOREST STEPPE and (ii) GRASS STEPPE. These two combined together represent 12 percent of the total geographical area of the Russia. The forest steppe consists of alternate bands of woodland and open steppe. The European forest-steppe is represented by oak, limes, elms and maple while the Siberian part of forest – steppe consists of birch, aspen and willow.

Temperate Grasslands Biome Vegetation

NORTH AMERICAN PRAIRIE – has developed in the U.S.A. and Canada between the foothills of the Rockies in the west and the temperate deciduous forest biome in the East. On the basis of decreasing trend of mean annual precipitation from east (1050mm) to west (400mm) American Prairies are divided into 3 sub-regions viz.

  • TALL GRASS PRAIRIE, species of the tallest grass are Bluestern and Switch grasses which having the height of 1.5 to 2.5 m.
  • MIXED GRASS Prairie short grasses such as little bluestem, needle grass, June grass and the short and bunch grasses such as bumdo grass and blue gramma
  • SHORT GRASS PRA1RIE. It may be pointed out that there is complete sequence of taller to shorter grasses from east to west
Temperate Grasslands Biome Vegetation

SOUTH AMERICAN PAMPAS – have their most extensive cover in Argentina where these account for about 15 percent of its total geographical area. The South American Pampas are comparatively more humid than the Eurasian Steppes and North American Prairies. The mean annual precipitation decreases from the east (Coastal land, 900mm) to the west (450mm). Thus the Pampas are divided into two sub-types e.g. (i) HUMID PAMPAS and (ii) SUB-HUMID PAMPAS. The humid Pampas, developed in the eastern part of Argentina, is characterized by tall grasses whereas the increasing aridity westward results in the growth of short grasses in the western sub-humid Pampas. The important grasses of the pampas include Briza, Bromus, Panicum, Paspalum, Lolium etc. It may be pointed out that the grasses of the Pampas have multilayered structure which is the result of the availability of moisture, soil and effects of grazing by the animals.

Temperate Grasslands Biome
Temperate Grasslands Biome Vegetation

AFRICAN VELD – has developed on the high plateau land of varying heights (1500m to 2000m) in the southeastern part of South Africa. The African Velds include the temperate grasslands of southern Transvaal and Orange Free State of South Africa ,and some parts of Lesotho. Here the growth of plants is not possible because of uncertainty of rainfall, increasing aridity, severity of frosts during nights and high daily range of temperature during winter season. Thus the true CLIMAX GRASSLANDS of African Velds have developed. There are many variations in the composition and structure of grasses because of variations in the topographic characteristics, soils, altitudes and climatic conditions. Based on aforesaid considerations the South African Veld Biome is further divided into 3 sub types viz.


(ii) ALPINE VEW and

(iii) SOUR VEW

Temperate Grasslands Biome
Temperate Grasslands Biome

AUSTRALIAN DOWNS – have developed in the south eastern parts of Australia and the northern part of Tasmania. This region is characterized by (i) relatively warmer winter season than the temperate grasslands of the northern hemisphere (ii) mixture of grasses with eucalyptus trees. The grasslands gradually change from south (Australian coast) to north (interior land) in accordance with the decreasing trend of mean annual precipitation from south (1524mm) to north (635mm). Thus 3 distinct and different grasslands are found in the Australian Downs (temperate grasslands) e.g.

  • TEMPERATE SHORT GRASSLANDS species of grasses such as Danthonia and Stipa genera of grasses.
  • XEROPHYTIC GRASSLANDS The important species of this biome are Aristida and Mulga (a shrub species).
Temperate Grasslands Biome

Here is a table summarizing the vegetation characteristics of temperate grasslands:

Vegetation CharacteristicsTemperate Grasslands
Dominant Plant SpeciesGrasses such as buffalo grass, blue grama, and wheatgrass
WildflowersCommon, including goldenrods and asters
Trees and ShrubsScattered, particularly along water sources; species include cottonwoods, willows, and oaks
Adaptations to ClimateDeep root systems to access moisture and nutrients stored deep in the soil
Adaptations to DisturbancesWell-adapted to periodic disturbances such as wildfires and grazing by large herbivores
Importance to EcosystemCritical for supporting the rich plant and animal life found in temperate grasslands

I hope this table helps you understand the important role that vegetation plays in the temperate grasslands biome!


Temperate grasslands are home to a diverse array of animal species, including large herbivores such as bison, pronghorns, and elk, as well as predators such as coyotes and foxes. Birds such as grouse, prairie chickens, and hawks are also common in these biomes.

Many of the animal species in temperate grasslands are well-adapted to the open, grassy landscape. For example, bison have large, muscular bodies that are well-suited to grazing on tough grasses, and they can also run at speeds of up to 35 miles per hour to evade predators. Pronghorns, on the other hand, have long, slender legs that are adapted for running at high speeds over long distances.

Predators in temperate grasslands, such as coyotes and foxes, rely on their keen senses of sight and smell to locate prey in the vast expanse of grassland. Many of these predators are also able to adapt their diet to the seasonal availability of food sources.

In addition to larger animals, temperate grasslands are also home to a variety of smaller animals such as rodents, reptiles, and insects. Prairie dogs, for example, are burrowing rodents that play an important role in shaping the grassland ecosystem by creating complex underground burrow systems that provide habitat for other animals.

Overall, the animal life in temperate grasslands is well-adapted to the unique climate, vegetation, and soil conditions of these biomes, and it plays a critical role in maintaining the balance of the ecosystem.

Temperate Grasslands Biome Animals
Temperate Grasslands Biome

The animal community of the temperate grassland biome is characterized by a unique property in that every grassland region of the southern and the northern hemispheres is dominated by a few species of large mammals. For example, buffalo and pronghorn antelope in the North American Prairies; wild horse and Saiga antelope in the Eurasian Steppes; antelopes in the South African Velds and guanaco in the South American Pampas. Secondly, the large herbivorous animals of the temperate grasslands are endowed with sturdy bodies so that they are able to protect themselves to some extent from their predator enemies like wolf and coyote. Thirdly, the grazing mammals have developed migratory habits so that they may avoid overuse of their forage and thus can conserve their food resources. In spite of the aforesaid and even more similarities in the animal communities of the different regions of the temperate grassland biome there are some regional variations as well.

The most important animals of the EURASIAN STEPPES are Saiga antelopes of the western steppes and Mongolian gazelles of the eastern steppes and the rare species of wild horses of the ungulate category (animals having hoofs). Among the burrowing animals rodents are important species. These rodents and mole rats dig out long and circuitous tunnels in the soft-dry soils to store food and to protect them from the severe cold. They remain indoor throughout the day (in side their tunnels) but come out of their tunnels during nights to get food. Predator animals include wolves, eagles, and large hawks etc., which depend on rodents for their food. Polecat is also all-important species of smaller predator animals.

Temperate Grasslands Biome
Mongolian Gerbil
Temperate Grasslands Biome Animals
Saiga Antelope

The bisons and pronghorns dominated the animal community of the North American Prairies. Similarly, there were numerous species of rodents in the American Prairies such as gophers and prairie dogs which used’ to live in long and narrow tunnels dug-out in the loose and dry soils to protect them from the predators during day time but most of these rodents have been either eliminated or markedly reduced in number because of removal of grasses on a large-scale for agricultural development. A large number of predator species depending primarily on rodents such as hawks, eagles, rattlesnakes, foxes, wolves etc. have also been adversely affected by ever-expanding agriculture in the prairies. Thus the agricultural development of the north American Prairies has provided food to large number of human population on the one hand but this practice has disturbed the original natural ecosystem of the Prairie grassland and has created ecological imbalance on the other hand.

Temperate Grasslands Biome Hawks
Temperate Grasslands Biome Wolves

The South American PAMPAS have now become major wheat fields and the remaining grasslands are so open that herbivorous animals are provided little natural refuge and protection from predator animals. The pampas deer is important among many species of herbivorous grazing animals whereas rodents mainly viscacha and mara are important burrowing species of mammals which like the rodents of the North American Prairies live in long and circuitous tunnels dugout in the loose and dry soils. Rhea is very important flight less species of birds which resembles emu of the Australian Downs and “ostrich of African Savanna. In spite of its giant body size the Rhea becomes successful to some extent in protecting him from his predators because his colour helps him to become invisible in the surroundings of the local vegetation and his height enables him to see and detect the enemies (predators). The predator animals include manned wolf, which depends on rodents, birds and even small reptiles. The pampas are enriched by many migratory seasonal birds such as herons, geese, ducks, etc.

The Australian DOWNS are dominated by Kangaroos which are of three types e.g.

(i) Red Kangaroos,

(ii) Gray Kangaroos and

(iii) Wallaroos.

The introduction of sheep for commercial purposes has also altered the composition of animal community in this grassland biome. Emu is the typical flightless bird species of this region.

Here is a table summarizing the animal characteristics of temperate grasslands:

Animal CharacteristicsTemperate Grasslands
Large HerbivoresBison, pronghorns, elk
PredatorsCoyotes, foxes
BirdsGrouse, prairie chickens, hawks
Adaptations to Open LandscapeBison have large, muscular bodies for grazing; pronghorns have long, slender legs for running long distances
Predation StrategiesReliance on keen senses of sight and smell to locate prey
Small AnimalsRodents, reptiles, insects such as prairie dogs
Importance to EcosystemCritical for maintaining the balance of the ecosystem in temperate grasslands

I hope this table helps you understand the important role that animal life plays in the temperate grasslands biome!

Temperate grasslands Biome Human Impact

Human impact on temperate grasslands has been significant and has had both positive and negative effects on the biome.

Positive impacts include the conversion of some areas of grassland into productive agricultural land, which has contributed to global food production. The fertile soil of these grasslands is particularly well-suited for growing crops such as wheat, corn, and soybeans, which are important staples in many parts of the world. In addition, grazing by domesticated livestock, such as cattle and sheep, has long been a part of human history in temperate grasslands and can help to maintain the health and biodiversity of the ecosystem.

However, human impact has also had negative effects on the temperate grasslands biome. One major threat is habitat loss due to agricultural expansion, urbanization, and oil and gas development. These activities can result in the fragmentation of grasslands, which can lead to declines in the populations of grassland species and increased vulnerability to invasive species.

Overgrazing by domesticated livestock can also be problematic, particularly when herds are not managed properly. Overgrazing can lead to the degradation of soil quality and the loss of plant cover, which can have cascading effects on the entire ecosystem.

Finally, climate change is also a significant threat to temperate grasslands. As temperatures rise and weather patterns become more extreme, these biomes are at risk of increased droughts and wildfires, which can lead to significant habitat loss and biodiversity declines.

Overall, the future of temperate grasslands will depend on efforts to balance the needs of human populations with the needs of the ecosystem, and to implement sustainable practices that minimize negative impacts on these important biomes.

Temperate grasslands Biome Conservation

Conservation efforts for temperate grasslands focus on preserving the biodiversity of these biomes and reducing the negative impacts of human activities on the ecosystem.

One important conservation strategy is the creation of protected areas, such as national parks and nature reserves. These areas can provide refuge for grassland species and help to prevent habitat loss due to agricultural and industrial activities. Additionally, restoration efforts can help to restore degraded grasslands to their natural state, improving habitat quality for native species.

Reducing overgrazing by domesticated livestock is also an important conservation measure. Proper grazing management, such as rotational grazing and monitoring herd size, can help to maintain the health and biodiversity of the ecosystem.

Another important conservation measure is the control of invasive species, which can outcompete native species and disrupt ecosystem processes. This can be accomplished through a variety of methods, such as mechanical removal, chemical control, and the use of native species to compete with invasives.

Finally, addressing the impacts of climate change is critical for the conservation of temperate grasslands. This includes reducing greenhouse gas emissions and implementing adaptive management strategies to help grasslands cope with the changing climate.

Overall, the conservation of temperate grasslands requires a multifaceted approach that balances the needs of human populations with the needs of the ecosystem. By working together, we can help to preserve these important biomes for future generations.


In conclusion, the temperate grasslands biome is a unique and important ecosystem that is home to a diverse array of plant and animal species. It is characterized by its vast expanses of grasses, which have adapted to withstand the harsh environmental conditions of this biome.

While human activities have had significant impacts on temperate grasslands, including habitat loss and degradation, there are also conservation efforts underway to preserve these important biomes. These efforts include protected areas, restoration, grazing management, invasive species control, and climate change mitigation and adaptation.

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