Over the last 25 years, the number of international tourists has more than doubled. The expansion of international tourism has a large impact on the discipline of transport geography. As of 2002, 715 million international tourist receipts were accounted for, representing more than 10% of the global population. Tourism dominantly takes place in Europe and North America. Traveling has always been an important feature of society. First the explorers traveled the world to learn more about geographical regions, potential markets and to exploit resources. As time moved on an as transportation became more reliable, traveling became a mundane activity taking place in an organized environment; tourism. In the modern world, traveling is more centered around the annual holidays and can be fairly well predicted.
Transportation refers to the movement of people, goods, and services from one place to another. It is a crucial aspect of tourism as it enables tourists to travel to their desired destinations and explore various attractions and experiences. There are many types of transportation available to tourists, including air travel, rail travel, road transportation, water transportation, bicycle travel, horse-drawn carriages, helicopter tours, cable cars and funiculars, car and motor travel, and coach tourism traveling. Each type of transportation offers its own unique benefits, from speed and convenience to scenic views and cultural experiences. The choice of transportation will depend on the destination, the budget, and the travel style of the tourist.
The main transport modes used by both types of categories are:
Car and Motor Traveling
Car and motor travel are popular options for tourists who want to explore destinations at their own pace and convenience. The following are some types of car and motor traveling tourism:
Car rental: Tourists can rent cars for short or long-term travel and explore destinations at their own pace.
Self-driven tours: These tours allow tourists to explore destinations in their own vehicle, such as road trips in the US or Europe.
Motorhome rental: This type of rental is ideal for travelers who want to take long road trips and experience the freedom of camping.
Motorcycle tours: These tours are ideal for adventure travelers who want to explore scenic destinations and experience a unique form of travel.
Campervan tours: This type of travel is ideal for tourists who want to experience a road trip in comfort and style.
Luxury car tours: For tourists who want to travel in style, luxury car tours offer a high-end experience, with premium vehicles and high-end amenities.
Adventure tours: These tours are ideal for travelers who want to explore remote destinations and engage in outdoor activities such as mountain biking, kayaking, and rock climbing.
Coach traveling in another alternative. Buses use the same road network as cars. Coaches are perfect for local mass tourism but can be perceived as a nuisance if in too large numbers.
Coach tourism traveling is a popular form of transportation for tourists who want an affordable and convenient way to explore destinations. The following are some types of coach tourism traveling:
Group tours: These tours are organized by travel companies and are designed to take tourists to popular destinations with a professional guide.
Sightseeing tours: These tours are designed to give tourists a comprehensive overview of a destination, including visits to popular attractions and landmarks.
Excursion tours: These tours are designed to give tourists an opportunity to explore a specific destination or activity, such as wine tasting or a beach excursion.
Cruise shore excursions: These tours are designed for tourists who are taking a cruise and want to explore nearby destinations.
Multi-day tours: These tours allow tourists to explore multiple destinations over a period of several days and include accommodation and transportation.
Special-interest tours: These tours cater to specific interests, such as food, history, or nature, and are designed to give tourists an immersive experience.
Adventure tours: These tours cater to travelers who want to engage in outdoor activities and adventure sports, such as rafting, hiking, or ziplining.
Types of Transportation
Tourism transportation refers to the various modes of transportation used by tourists to travel from one destination to another. Some of the common types of tourism transportation include:
Rail travel is also another option, it was the dominant form of mass public transport before the car age in the developed economies, and still remains the main travel mode in less developed economies. Even if trains are very fast, the network is not too flexible, pre-established routes have to be followed. The railway network usually reflects more the commercial needs of the national economy then the holiday tourist flow which can make it a second choice as a traveling mode. The railway systems of several countries, notably in Europe, have seen massive investments for long-distance routes and high-speed engines.
Britain has advanced passenger train which travel at up to 150 mph on existing track and at 186 mph at special prepared track and another is Hover train which runs with 250 mph. France has turbo train and aero train with 200 mph. Germany having trans rapid train with the speed of 300 mph. Japan having train which is called bullet train with the speed of 125 mph and 300 mph.
First excursion tour by train is organized by Captain Cook on 5th July 1841 between Leicester and Loughborough with 570 people. Then he established Thomas Cook and Sons Ltd. And long train tours arrangement start. The great exhibition of 1851 had a considerable impact on the growth of railway travel: it stimulate the development of cheap excursion and the 5 million people traveled to London by rail to visit this exhibition. This railway was ordinary but first first class railway start in 1870 introduced by American G. M. Pullman with luxurious furnishing and dining facility for long distance. Comparable travel in Europe was first time organized by Compagniedes Wagon – Lit.
Rail travel is a popular form of transportation for tourists who want to experience a scenic and convenient way to explore destinations. The following are some of the benefits of rail travel tourism:
Convenience: Rail travel is convenient as it offers a comfortable and relaxed way to travel, with amenities such as dining cars, Wi-Fi, and sleeping compartments.
Scenic views: Rail travel offers breathtaking views of the countryside, mountains, and coastal regions, making it a popular option for tourists who want to explore scenic destinations.
Cultural experiences: Rail travel offers a unique cultural experience, with opportunities to interact with locals and learn about local cultures and customs.
Cost-effective: Rail travel is an economical way to travel, especially for tourists who are traveling long distances.
Eco-friendly: Rail travel is environmentally friendly, as it produces less greenhouse gas emissions compared to air travel.
Network coverage: Rail travel has extensive coverage, especially in Europe and Asia, making it easy for tourists to travel between destinations.
Accessibility: Rail travel is accessible for travelers with disabilities, with facilities such as ramps and accessible toilets.
Air travel is a mode of transportation that uses aircraft to carry passengers and cargo from one place to another. It is the quickest and most convenient way to travel over long distances, especially for international travel. Air travel is a popular choice for tourists due to its speed, reliability, and comfort. Airlines offer a range of services, including direct flights, stopovers, in-flight entertainment, and meals, to make the journey as pleasant as possible. However, air travel can also be expensive and contribute to environmental issues, such as emissions and noise pollution.
Air transport is by far the most effective transport mode. Notably because of prices, only 12.5% of the tourist travel by plane. Air transport has revolutionized the geographical aspect of distances; the most remote areas can now be attained, any journey around the world can be measured in terms of hours of traveling. With jet that can reach up to 1950 km/hrs, international tourism is no longer an on going adventure. Businesspeople are among the biggest users of airline facilities.
Air travel is a popular form of transportation for tourists, especially for international travel.
Advantages of air travel include:
- Speed: Air travel is the fastest way to travel over long distances.
- Convenience: Air travel offers a high degree of convenience, with frequent flights, airport transfers, and baggage handling services.
- Network: Air travel has a vast network of flights and destinations, making it easy to reach many parts of the world.
- Comfort: Many airlines offer a range of comfort options, including premium seating, in-flight entertainment, and meals.
However, air travel also has some disadvantages, such as:
- Cost: Air travel can be expensive, especially for premium seats and international flights.
- Environmental impact: Air travel has a significant impact on the environment, including greenhouse gas emissions and noise pollution.
- Security: Air travel involves a number of security checks, which can be time-consuming and stressful for some travelers.
- Delays and cancellations: Air travel can be affected by flight delays and cancellations, causing inconvenience for travelers.
Overall, air travel remains a popular form of transportation for tourists, offering a quick and convenient way to reach destinations all over the world.
Cruises are mainly concentrated towards short sea journeys of about a week. Cruising has become a significant tourist industry; big cruisers are like floating resorts where guests can enjoy luxury and entertainment while moving towards their multiple destination. The international market for cruising was about 10 million tourists in 2000, more than doubling its market since 1990. The principal geographic location of the main cruise lines are the Caribbean, the Mediterranean and South China / Pacific Ocean. Alaska and Northern Europe fjords are also popular during the summer season. This industry is characterized by a high level of market concentration with a few companies, such as Carnival and Princess.
Water travel is a popular form of tourism transportation, offering unique and scenic experiences for tourists.
Some of the advantages of water travel include:
- Scenic views: Water travel often offers stunning views, especially for coastal and island destinations.
- Relaxation: Many water travel options, such as cruise ships, offer opportunities for relaxation and recreation.
- Variety: There are many different forms of water travel, including cruise ships, ferries, and boats, each offering a unique experience.
- Convenience: Water travel can be a convenient way to reach destinations that are not easily accessible by other forms of transportation.
However, water travel also has some disadvantages, such as:
- Cost: Water travel can be expensive, especially for cruise ships and premium experiences.
- Weather-dependent: Water travel can be affected by weather conditions, such as rough seas and storms, causing delays or cancellations.
- Limited destinations: Water travel is often limited to coastal and island destinations, and may not be an option for travelers visiting inland destinations.
- Motion sickness: Some travelers may experience motion sickness on boats and ships, affecting their enjoyment of the journey.
Overall, water travel is a popular and unique form of tourism transportation, offering scenic views and relaxed journeys for tourists.
Road travel is a flexible and cost-effective form of tourism transportation, popular for road trips and self-drive tours.
Some of the advantages of road travel include:
- Flexibility: Road travel allows travelers to take their time, stop at interesting places along the way, and change their itinerary as desired.
- Cost: Road travel can be a cost-effective way to travel, especially for self-drive tours and road trips.
- Convenience: Many destinations are easily accessible by road, making it a convenient option for travelers.
- Freedom: Road travel provides a sense of freedom and independence, allowing travelers to explore at their own pace.
However, road travel also has some disadvantages, such as:
- Driving: Driving can be stressful, especially in unfamiliar destinations and heavy traffic.
- Cost: Road travel can become expensive if travelers need to rent a car, pay for fuel, and parking.
- Fatigue: Long road trips can be tiring, and driving for extended periods can lead to fatigue and reduced concentration.
- Road conditions: Road travel can be affected by road conditions, such as traffic congestion, road closures, and inclement weather.
Overall, road travel is a flexible and cost-effective form of tourism transportation, popular for road trips and self-drive tours. It provides travelers with a sense of freedom and independence, but also has its own challenges and disadvantages.
Adventure Tourism Transportation
Adventure tourism transportation refers to the modes of transportation used in adventure tourism activities, such as hiking, mountain biking, and rafting. Some of the common forms of adventure tourism transportation include:
Hiking: Hiking typically involves walking on foot to reach outdoor destinations, with some gear and supplies carried in a backpack.
Mountain biking: Mountain biking involves riding a specialized bicycle on rough terrain, such as mountain trails, for adventure and recreation.
Rafting: Rafting involves floating down a river on a raft, often with a guide, for adventure and recreation.
Kayaking and canoeing: Kayaking and canoeing involve paddling a small watercraft on rivers, lakes, and oceans, for adventure and recreation.
Climbing: Climbing involves ascending and descending mountains, cliffs, and other vertical structures, using specialized equipment and techniques.
Each form of adventure tourism transportation requires specific skills, equipment, and training, and travelers should consider their physical abilities and safety when choosing an adventure tourism activity. Additionally, travelers should be aware of environmental and cultural considerations, and respect local regulations and guidelines when participating in adventure tourism activities.