The ‘United Nations Development Program’ (UNDP) published its first human development report in 1990.
“Human development is a process of widening peoples choices as well as raising the level of well being.”
Human development is necessary due to: (by Paul Streeten)
- To improve human conditions and enlarge people’s choices.
- It is a major tool for achieving a higher level of productivity.
- It helps reduce the growth of the population.
- Ti is friendly with the physical environment.
- Improve living conditions and reduce poverty.
- It helps in reducing civil disturbance in society and increasing political stability.
Indicators of Human Development
1. Health Indicators
- To longevity of birth rate.
- Death rate with special reference to infant mortality.
- The life expectancy of birth.
2. Social indicators
- Include literacy, particularly female literacy.
- Enforcement of school-going children.
- Drop out ratio.
- Fulfill teacher ratio.
3. economic indicators
- Related to wedges.
- The income per capita.
- Employment opportunity.
- Poverty etc.
Computing the HDI
- Life expectancy at birth: 25 years and 89 years
- General literacy rate: 0% and 100%
- Real GDP per capita: PPP $ 100 and PPP $ 40,000
– HDI is a simple average of these three indices, its value ranges from 0 to 1.
HDI of India
Global positions of India with respect to H.D.
|Country||Human Development Index (HDI) Rank||HDI||Life Expectancy (Years)|
- India ranked 127 out of the 177 countries.
- In South Asian countries, India ranks 3rd after Maldives (84), Sri Lanka (93), Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh worse than India.
- Norway, Iceland, and Australia to three performances.
- Burkina Faso, sierra leone, and Niger have the worst human development.
A. Health indicators
- Crude birth rate – 25.0 (2002)
- Crude death rate – 8.1
- Life expectancy – 63.3
b. Literacy indication
- Total literacy – 64.8% (2001)
- Male literacy – 75.30%
- Female literacy – 53.70%
- Elementary education – Boys: 85.4%, Girls: 79.3%, Total: 82.5%
- Adult education – 15 years & above (Adult): 61.3%, 25 years (Youth): 73.3%
c. economic indicators
- Poverty Ratio – 19.3%
- Rural – 21.1%
- Urban – 15.1%
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