The Samudrayaan 2 mission is a groundbreaking initiative by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to explore the deep sea. Scheduled for launch in 2024-2025, the mission will be India’s first manned submersible mission to the deep sea, venturing to depths of up to 6000 meters. The mission will explore a variety of sites in the Indian Ocean, including the Central Indian Ridge, the Carlsberg Ridge, and the Andaman-Nicobar Trench, all of which are home to a diverse range of marine life and geological features.
1. Studying Deep-Sea Biodiversity
The primary scientific objective of Samudrayaan 2 is to study the distribution and diversity of marine life in the deep sea, including microbes, invertebrates, fish, and marine mammals. This will help scientists to better understand the biodiversity of the deep sea and to identify new species.
2. Unveiling Physiological Adaptations
Another crucial goal is to investigate the physiological adaptations of deep-sea organisms to their extreme environment. This will help scientists understand how deep-sea organisms can survive in such harsh conditions and identify potential applications for this knowledge in other fields, such as medicine and biotechnology.
3. Understanding Geological Processes
The mission also aims to study the geological processes that shape the deep-sea environment, such as seafloor spreading, plate tectonics, and volcanic activity. This will help scientists to better understand the evolution of the Earth’s crust and to identify potential hazards, such as underwater earthquakes and tsunamis.
4. Exploring Deep-Sea Resources
Samudrayaan 2 will investigate the distribution and abundance of deep-sea mineral resources. This will help India assess its potential for deep-sea mining and develop sustainable resource management practices.
5. Analyzing Physical and Chemical Properties
The mission will also delve into the physical and chemical properties of the deep sea, such as temperature, salinity, currents, and nutrient concentrations. This will help scientists to better understand the role of the deep sea in the global climate system and to identify potential impacts of climate change on the deep sea.
In addition to its scientific objectives, the Samudrayaan 2 mission will also test and demonstrate a number of new technologies for deep-sea exploration.
1. Deep Submergence Vehicle (DSV) Matsya 6000
The DSV Matsya 6000 is a manned submersible capable of operating at depths of up to 6000 meters. It is equipped with a variety of sensors and instruments for scientific research, as well as manipulators and sampling devices. This vehicle will be crucial in gathering valuable data from the deep sea.
2. Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs)
AUVs are unmanned vehicles that can be programmed to follow a pre-defined route and collect data without human intervention. They are ideal for exploring large areas of the deep sea or for conducting long-term monitoring studies.
3. Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs)
ROVs are tethered vehicles that can be controlled remotely by human operators. They are often used for conducting detailed surveys of the seabed or for performing tasks that are too dangerous or difficult for human divers.
The development of these new technologies will help India become a leader in deep-sea exploration and develop new commercial opportunities in areas such as offshore oil and gas exploration, deep-sea mining, and marine environmental monitoring.
Benefits to India
The Samudrayaan 2 mission is expected to provide a number of significant benefits to India.
1. Enhanced Scientific Understanding
This mission will provide new insights into deep-sea biology, geology, and oceanography of the Indian Ocean. This new knowledge will help to better understand the role of the deep sea in the global climate system and to identify new opportunities for sustainable resource development.
2. Boosted Technological Capabilities
Samudrayaan 2 is requiring the development of new AUVs, ROVs, and other underwater vehicles, as well as new sensors and instruments for scientific research. These new technologies will have a wide range of applications, including offshore oil and gas exploration, deep-sea mining, and marine environmental monitoring.
3. Increased International Collaboration
This mission is requiring close collaboration between ISRO, other government agencies, academic institutions, and industry partners. This collaboration is helping to strengthen India’s ties with the global community and to position India as a leader in deep-sea exploration.
The Samudrayaan 2 mission is a bold and ambitious undertaking that is poised to transform India’s capabilities in deep-sea exploration. The mission’s success will depend on the continued hard work and dedication of the ISRO team and its partners. With their collective efforts, Samudrayaan 2 is poised to usher in a new era of deep-sea exploration for India.
1. When is the Samudrayaan 2 mission scheduled for launch?
The Samudrayaan 2 mission is scheduled for launch in 2024-2025.
2. What are the primary scientific objectives of the mission?
The primary objectives include studying deep-sea biodiversity, investigating physiological adaptations of deep-sea organisms, understanding geological processes, exploring deep-sea resources, and analyzing physical and chemical properties.
3. What new technologies will be tested during the mission?
The mission will test technologies such as the Deep Submergence Vehicle Matsya 6000, Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), and Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs).
4. How will the mission benefit India?
The mission will enhance scientific understanding, boost technological capabilities, and increase international collaboration in deep-sea exploration, positioning India as a leader in this field.
5. What is the potential for deep-sea mining in the Indian Ocean?
The mission aims to assess the potential for deep-sea mining and develop sustainable resource management practices in the Indian Ocean.